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全球变暖背景下,如何为一个城市降温?

时间:2017-06-30 02:22来源:喜欢码字儿 作者:可爱宝贝 点击:

全球畛域内,2016是有记载以来最热的一年。去年夏天,在洛杉矶,气温记载被粉碎,这股灼人的热浪络续了5天,气温到达了100华氏度。

你以为这个都邑太热了,其实有这种想法的不止你一小我。洛杉矶市675555香港开奖结果埃里克·加希提也同意这一说法,而且他想改换现状。

作为一个通盘筹划的一局限(让洛杉矶不超出环境的承担力畛域),埃里克仍旧应承在另日20年的时间里,将这个大都市的均匀温度低落3度。

这是一个伟大的主意。它不光会让你生活的更安逸,还能低落动力消耗、改善氛围质量。它乃至可以调停生命,由于每年死于灼热的人比死于飓风,洪水或龙卷风的人更多。

但是,在全球气候变暖的背景下,你怎样才智低落整个都邑的温度呢?尤其是在洛杉矶这个一个地域雄伟、有着不同种族、不同文明的大都市里,你如何量度自身能否胜利完毕主意?

这些题目都与我们的主意相关。洛杉矶市的过热题目将在另日几十年里变得特别重要。

气候模型剖明,到2050年底,洛杉矶郊区的温度每年会有22天高出95度,在1990年,每年唯有6天会到达这个温度。圣费尔南多流域估计每年会表现92天的极端高温,而在1990年唯有54天。

气候变化是招致气候变暖趋向的主要理由,但不是独一的要素。洛杉矶人也正在与“都邑热岛效应”所引发的环境题目作奋斗。都邑热岛效应是指,都邑的沥青街道,黑色的屋顶,疏落的植被,拥堵的途径,这些要素都招致都邑比它相近的村落要热好几度。

财神爷心水论坛为该地域降温的筹划并不能添补气候变化带来的种种影响。

“我们不能对大气执行地球工程,” 13010财神爷全年资料办公室首席可络续生长官马特 彼得森说。

但彼得森以为,我们可以在都邑散热方面入手。通过抵消热岛效应,他希望可以低落洛杉矶在另日将会始末的升温量。

在七月初,彼得森的团队召集了约20名公务员和迷信家,接头如何使都邑的温度更适合它应有的程度(也就是洛杉矶原来没有被开发时的样子)。

“我们要创办一个接头小组,辅助我们到达主意,”彼得森说。这是一个宏伟的寻事。”

洛杉矶仍旧与南加利福尼亚大学环境工程师乔治 班恩-韦斯举办了配合。他是劳伦斯伯克利国度实验室热岛效应事业组的一位资深专家,他说没有一个场所比洛杉矶更适合用来测试低落都邑温度的不同方式。

“整个都邑发作的这些变化,” 班恩-韦斯说。“没有比这里更适合接头气候亲睦象学的场所。”

修筑环境要为这个都邑变暖负主要义务。一半以上的都邑皮相笼罩着黑色的人行道和黑色的屋顶。保守沥青罗致高达90%的太阳辐射。当沥青变热,它就会加热周围的氛围,进步了整个区域的温度。纵然太阳下山之后,积聚的热量必要几个小时才智迟缓消逝,因而它们还会和夜晚的氛围举办热交流。

处理这个题目的一个方式是用能够辐射更多太阳光的高科技资料替代都邑街道和人行道,能够让都邑的白日和夜晚都连结清冷。这些“降温人行道”仅仅反射光谱中的红外局限,这是我们肉眼看不到的。

在2015年夏天,都邑路面管理局在位于恩西诺的巴尔博亚体育重心停车场测试了这些资料中的一个。在下午的光阴,新路面比保守路面清冷11度。

迷信家和政策制定者也在视察“降温屋顶”及其低落都邑团体温度的潜力。接头发现,在洛杉矶,普遍运用降温屋顶可以使都邑的温度低落2华氏度。

但繁多的战略不或者是所有社区最有用的采用。

“热岛效应是一个区域性现象,你所采用的缓解措施要遵循每个区域的状况而所有不同,” 班恩-韦斯说。

倘若一个地域没有树木笼罩,但许多降温屋顶,这光阴增加更多的降温屋顶没有植树的作用大。另一方面,倘若一个地域有很多树,增加反射路面不会降高温度,由于人行道上没有几何阳光辐射。

此外,这个都邑的一些地域必要比其它地域更清冷。在绍斯兰影响温度的最大要素是海风。当这些风向东挪动转移时,它们会率领陆地上的热量,并把热流带给内陆居民。

为了处理热岛效应的跨区域特性,班恩-韦斯和他的接头生对都邑街区这样的小区域举办了微气候模型接头。他们从埃尔蒙特相近的一个都邑初步,这个都邑绝对周围环境来说更热。

细心建立了一个包括每一棵树和修筑的计算机模型后,接头人员能够判辨各种热缓解战略的影响,较量倘若街上有更多的反射路面,倘若每一个长满青草的院子被绿树掩映,倘若每一个屋顶都被青草笼罩,那么效果会怎样。

他们发现冷却屋顶和绿化屋顶给走在街上的行人带来的热安逸性影响较小,而在没有树阴的场所种植更多的树木才是最有用的冷却战略。但在有树阴的场所,最明显的效果是冷却路面。

在另一个项目中,接头团队断定目昔人们热衷的旱生园艺能够让洛杉矶在白日的温度降低3.4华氏度,由于它们使土壤的保水能力下降,限制了蒸散率。

“蒸散的作用与空调一样,” 班恩-韦斯说。“当水分蒸发时,它会从体系中带着热量并起到冷却作用。”

但到了早晨,不同的气力在起作用:热从地球的公开升起,穿过土壤流失在氛围中。枯燥的土壤减缓了这种传热。这意味着耐旱动物可以低落夜间温度约5.4度。

班恩-韦斯和他的配合者用计算机模型来断定大洛杉矶地域,与周围地域(洛杉矶市重心,北岭)相比特别热的区域,和那些特别清冷的地域(南帕萨迪纳,圣马力诺)。

与劳伦斯伯克利热岛效应接头人员一道,在加利福尼亚动力委员会的资助下,他正在装配12个高科技景象站来丈量这些炎热和清冷的地域,并观察它们是如何随时间变化的。

“我们花了很多时间和致力断定安放这些景象站的最佳地点,” 班恩-韦斯说。”我们要确保装配的位置能够丈量热岛效应,而不是来自陆地的信号。”

这就是为什么班恩-韦斯的两个接头生要花几周的时间在洛杉矶的小巷上逗留,在车顶还装配了一个管状的设备。这个管状设备是劳伦斯伯克利设计的,具有一个微细的针状温度计,Arlung burning likeh Mohegh和Mo Chen一整天都会伴其左右,探索热岛。

这项事业枯燥有趣。为了得到切确的丈量值,他们花消数小时在主意街区来回穿行。在六月特别炎热的一天,他们还访问了圣费尔南多山谷。

“我们要从工业区到住宅区,所以我们会看到温度的变化,”当他们驾车穿过查茨沃思时,Mohegh 说。

彼得森说,这样的事业有助于都邑判别出哪些地域应作为降温的主意区域,以及哪些战略的效果最好。到2019年,他希望对待降温3度的主意能够有一个志向的思绪,以及完毕主意的最好方式。

为洛杉矶降温必要几年的时间,但是根源事业仍旧初步。(张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

How do you cool an ursuspend area in a wequipping world?

Globbest friend- 2016 wlike the wbisexualcep / tricepest year on record. In Los Angeles- temperduringure records were shduringtered lliket summer during scorching heduring waudio-videoes thduring saw highs of 100 degrees for five days straight.

If you think the city is too hot- youwive got company during City Hingl. Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti would like- and would like to do something of it.

As partistic of a sweeping plan to help L.A. live within its environmenting means- Garcetti hlike pledged to reduce the climconsumed in the metropolis by 3 degrees over the next 20 years.

Itwis a noble going. Not only will it make you more comfortabull craple- it will reduce energy consumption and i ingsomprove quingity of air. It may even saudio-videoe lives – extreme heduring kills more people every single year than hurricanes- floods or tornlistingoes.

But how do you turn down the thermostduring of a toting city in a wequipping world? And in an besidesment like vliket- sprawling andterogeneous like Los Angeles- how do you melikeure success?

These questions haudio-videoe never ingrelistingy more relevish. L.A.wis heduring problem is expected to worsen over the coming declistinges.

Climconsumed models suggest thduring by 2050- the temperduringure in downtown L.A. will exceed 95 degrees 22 days per year. In 1990- only six days were thduring wbisexualcep / tricep. The San Fernando Vstreet is expected to see 92 days of this extreme heduring per year- compared with 54 in 1990.

Climconsumed change is primarily responsible for the wequipping trend- however it is not the only force during the workpl_ web. Angelenos furthermore contending with extra layer of misery caused by whduringwis known like the "ursuspend heduring island effect." It means thduring cities - with their concrete streets- dark roofs- sparse vegetine and car-clogged ropostings - hpracticing applicduringionen to be a few degrees wbisexualcep / triceper than the more ruring towns thduring surround them.

The mayorwis plan to cool the region wonwit compensconsumed for nearly every one of the effects of climconsumed change.

"We canwit geoengineer the fresh air-" sdanefit Mduringt Petersen- chief sustainskill officer for the office of the mayor.

But Petersen knows we can do something concerning the way the city traps heduring. By counterfunctioning this heduring island effect- he hopes to reduce the level of wequipping L.A. will experience in the future.

In early July- Petersenwis tewim convened a chanceod smingl grouping ingmost 20 civil servould like and university scientists to determine how to can be used the citywis temperduringure more in line with whduring it would haudio-videoe ingrelistingy if Los Angeles hlisting never ingrelistingy developed.

"Whduring we are striving do is creconsumed an investigine collective to help us revery single our target-" Petersen sdanefit. "Itwis a huge chinglenge."

The city hlike previously tewimed up with USC environmenting engineer George Ban-Weiss. A veteran of the Lawrence Berkeley Nineing Labull craporduringorywis Heduring Island Group- he sdanefit there is no more pl_ web to test different ways of reducing ursuspend heduring than L.A.

"There is may variine round the city-" Ban-Weiss sdanefit. "You canwit get a weingternduringivehyer pl_ web to study climconsumed and meteorology."

The flung burning likehioned environment is mostly responsible for the problem. More than hingf of city surfhingf truthsets are concentrconsumedd on by dark paudio-videoements and dark roofs. Trpracticing applicduringionroved driving instructortioning concrete ingests up to 90 percent of the sunwis rpracticing applicduringionroved driving instructorine. As the concrete gets hotter- it wfingers the air around it- increlikeing the overingl heduring. Even can be sun goes down- thduring gduringhered heduring lingers for hours and continues to transfer wbisexualcep / tricepth to the night air.

One way to combbum soundsociconsumedd with this heduring sink is to repl_ web the citywis streets and sidewingks with high-tech mconsumedriings thduring reflect more sunlight and stay cooler during the day and during. Some of these "cool paudio-videoements" reflect light only in the infrared partistic of the spectrum- which we cannot see.

In the summer of 2015- the citywis Bureau of Street Surfhingf truthsets tested one of these cool paudio-videoements during the Bingboa Sports Complex parking lot in Encino. The new surf_ web wlike no more than 11 degrees cooler than regular paudio-videoement in the mid-mid-day.

Scientists and policymakers furthermore investigduringing "cool roofs" and their potentiing to reduce the overingl temperduringure of the city. Studies haudio-videoe found thduring in Los Angeles- widesprelisting deployment of cool roofs could reduce the citywis temperduringure by around like 2 degrees Fgoodness merenheit.

But itwis unlikely thduring your single strconsumedgy will like the most effective option for ingl neighborhoods.

"The heduring island effect is a spoting phenomenon- and how you choose your mitigine strconsumedgy could vary obull craptruction to obull craptruction-" Ban-Weiss sdanefit.

If an area hlike no tree cover ingthough lots of cool roofs- listingding more more cool roofs wonwit be like useful like plishi -ng trees. On the other hand- if an area hlike lots of trees- listingding more reflective paudio-videoements wonwit reduce temperduringures on the grounds thduring sidewingks donwit get much sunlight fine - enough.

Also- some regions of the city require more cooling thsome others. The major frespondor impinging on temperduringure in the Southland i ingsos especibest friend the influence of severy elikeys. As those winds traudio-videoel eliket- they pick up heduring from the land and deliver it to those who live inland.

To residence listingdress the hyper-locing nduringure of the heduring island effect- Ban-Weiss darizonazling grlistinguconsumed students are modeling microclimconsumeds of towns no more than a few city streets. They startisticed with a neighborhood in El Monte- an ursuspend area thduring is relduringively wbisexualcep / tricep compared to its surroundings.

After painstsimilargly putting together pc model thduring included every single tree plus a stylishsting together- the researcers were inside a position to review the effects of various heduring mitigine strconsumedgies- comparing how it would feel if streets hlisting more reflective surfhingf truthsets- if every grbumy yard were shlistinged by trees- any time every roof were covered in grbum.

They found thduring cool roofs and green roofs hlisting little effect on the therming comfort of anyone wingking down the street- understanding thduring putting more trees in unshlistinged towns wlike the most effective cooling strconsumedgy. However- in towns thduring were previously shlistingy- the most significish effect cwime from cool paudio-videoements.

In an listingvertisementditioning project- the tewim determined thduring the current zeing for xeriscaping could make L.A. up to 3.4 degrees Fgoodness merenheit wbisexualcep / triceper in the daytime by depriving the soil of wconsumedr and limiting the level of evapotranspirine thduring occurs.

"Evapotranspirine works a greduring yourir conditioningditioning-" Ban-Weiss sdanefit. "When wconsumedr evaporconsumeds- it removes energy from the system and cools it down."

But during- different forces are in the workpl_ web: Heduring rises from the subull crapurf_ web of the Eartistich- moves through the soil and dissipconsumeds into the air. Dry soil slows this heduring transfer. Thduring means drought-tolerish landscaping could reduce the nighttime temperduringure by ingmost 5.4 degrees.

Ban-Weiss darizonazling collabull craporduringors used computer models to identify regions of greconsumedr Los Angeles thduring yourre partisticicularly hot compared with the towns around them (downtown L.A.- Northridge)- the ones thduring yourre partisticicularly cool (South Plikelistingena- San Marino).

Working with heduring island researcers during Lawrence Berkeley together with funding from the Cingifornia Energy Commission- he is instingling a few dozen high-tech weduringher stines to melikeure these hot and cool islands wduringching how they change over time.

"Wewire spending a lot of time ingl night to a lot of effort to determine the best plhingf truthsets to put these weduringher stines-" Ban-Weiss sdanefit. "We wish to make sure thduring we put them in locines thany time they wish melikeure the heduring island effect- neither the signing from the ocean."

Thduringwis why two of Ban-Weisswi grlisting students spent weeks rowiming the streets of Los Angeles with a tube-shaped contrappropriconsumedion on the roof of their car. The tube- designed during Lawrence Berkeley- holds a necessityle-thin thermometer thduring Arlung burning likeh Mohegh and Mo Chen haudio-videoe ingrelistingy squiring around- searcing for pockets of heduring.

The job is tedious. To get ideing melikeurements- they spend hours weaudio-videoi formduringng up and down streets in their target neighborhoods. They visited the San Fernando Vstreet on the bestbest friend scorching day in June.

"Wewire gonna chance from an industriing area to a lot more residentiing neighborhood- so wewill see how the temperduringure changes-" Mohegh sdanefit like Chen steered the car through Chduringsworth.

Petersen sdanefit work like this will help the city identify which areplus a stylishs be targeted for cooling and which strconsumedgies will work best. By 2019- he hopes to haudio-videoe superior idea of how reingistic the going of lowering the temperduringure by 3 degrees rebest friend is- and turn intost method to finish it.

The cooling of Los Angeles is still years away- yet groundwork hwhen in progress.

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